An atlas of the thoracic ganglia in the stick insect, Carausius morosus

Kittmann R, Dean J, Schmitz J (1991)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B: Biological Sciences 331(1260): 101-121.

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Abstract
The present report describes the neuroanatomy of the three thoracic ganglia in the stick insect, Carausius morosus, the subject of numerous behavioural and neurobiological studies. The structure of the ganglia is summarized in an atlas of the major features. The results are compared with published descriptions of other insects and arthropods. Numerous similarities with locusts encourage the use of a common nomenclature even where minor differences make homology uncertain pending detailed investigation. Five out of the nine longitudinal tracts described in locusts can be readily identified in the stick insect. Three major tracts (LDT, DIT, VIT) and two smaller tracts (MDT, DMT) are compact and well defined. The VMT and MVT are also prominent but these two tracts are not clearly separated except near the rostral margin of the neuropile. An eighth tract, the VLT, is much less distinct: it is represented by scattered fibres in neuropile lateral to the DIT. The iLVT and oLVT, the two parts of the ninth tract, are quite inconspicuous: in some, but not all, preparations they can be identified as two thin bands running along the ventral and ventrolateral margins of the ganglion. As in locusts, six dorsal commissures (DCI-DCVI) and five ventral commissures (VCI, vVCII, dVCII, SMC, PVC) connecting the left and right hemiganglia have been named although the two most dorsal commissures, DCII and DCVI, are often subdivided. The VCII is retained as a single unit with dorsal and ventral parts. Of the dorsal-ventral tracts only the transverse tract (TT) and the circle tract (CT) are well-defined. Roots of lateral nerves are left unnamed pending more detailed study but several conspicuous branches are included in the drawings as guides to orientation in the lateral neuropile. The ventral association centre (VAC) and several other neuropile divisions are described. Pro- and mesothoracic ganglia derive from single neuromeres. The metathoracic ganglion results from the fusion of the third thoracic and the first abdominal neuromeres: each part contains its own set of commissures and dorsoventral tracts. The results underline the qualitative similarities of the thoracic ganglia in insects; they provide a basis for more precise descriptions of identified neurons and functional specialization within the ganglia of the stick insect.
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Kittmann R, Dean J, Schmitz J. An atlas of the thoracic ganglia in the stick insect, Carausius morosus. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B: Biological Sciences. 1991;331(1260):101-121.
Kittmann, R., Dean, J., & Schmitz, J. (1991). An atlas of the thoracic ganglia in the stick insect, Carausius morosus. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B: Biological Sciences, 331(1260), 101-121.
Kittmann, R., Dean, J., and Schmitz, J. (1991). An atlas of the thoracic ganglia in the stick insect, Carausius morosus. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B: Biological Sciences 331, 101-121.
Kittmann, R., Dean, J., & Schmitz, J., 1991. An atlas of the thoracic ganglia in the stick insect, Carausius morosus. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B: Biological Sciences, 331(1260), p 101-121.
R. Kittmann, J. Dean, and J. Schmitz, “An atlas of the thoracic ganglia in the stick insect, Carausius morosus”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B: Biological Sciences, vol. 331, 1991, pp. 101-121.
Kittmann, R., Dean, J., Schmitz, J.: An atlas of the thoracic ganglia in the stick insect, Carausius morosus. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B: Biological Sciences. 331, 101-121 (1991).
Kittmann, Ralf, Dean, J., and Schmitz, Josef. “An atlas of the thoracic ganglia in the stick insect, Carausius morosus”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B: Biological Sciences 331.1260 (1991): 101-121.
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