Control of body height in a stick insect walking on a treadwheel

Cruse H, Schmitz J, Braun U, Schweins A (1993)
The Journal of Experimental Biology 181(1): 141-155.

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The properties of the system that controls the distance between body and ground was investigated in the stick insect Carausius morosus. The insect walked on a lightweight double treadwheel under open-loop or closed-loop conditions. The open-loop investigations show that the dynamic behaviour of the height-control system in the walking animal can be described in terms of a simple proportional system with negligible dynamic properties, and it is therefore much simpler than the height-control system in the standing animal. Under open-loop conditions, we found no coupling between contralateral or ipsilateral legs. This agrees with the findings on standing animals. The force-height characteristic shows two ranges, in each of which the system exhibits a linear relationship but a different slope. Under closed-loop conditions, the force-height characteristic shows the same two linear ranges, but the slopes are greater than under open-loop conditions. Because the height controller of each leg can be considered to act like a spring, this result means that under closed-loop conditions the controller is stiffer than it is under open-loop conditions.
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Cruse H, Schmitz J, Braun U, Schweins A. Control of body height in a stick insect walking on a treadwheel. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 1993;181(1):141-155.
Cruse, H., Schmitz, J., Braun, U., & Schweins, A. (1993). Control of body height in a stick insect walking on a treadwheel. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 181(1), 141-155.
Cruse, H., Schmitz, J., Braun, U., and Schweins, A. (1993). Control of body height in a stick insect walking on a treadwheel. The Journal of Experimental Biology 181, 141-155.
Cruse, H., et al., 1993. Control of body height in a stick insect walking on a treadwheel. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 181(1), p 141-155.
H. Cruse, et al., “Control of body height in a stick insect walking on a treadwheel”, The Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 181, 1993, pp. 141-155.
Cruse, H., Schmitz, J., Braun, U., Schweins, A.: Control of body height in a stick insect walking on a treadwheel. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 181, 141-155 (1993).
Cruse, Holk, Schmitz, Josef, Braun, U., and Schweins, A. “Control of body height in a stick insect walking on a treadwheel”. The Journal of Experimental Biology 181.1 (1993): 141-155.
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