Identified nonspiking interneurons in leg reflexes and during walking in the stick insect

Büschges A, Kittmann R, Schmitz J (1994)
Journal of Comparative Physiology, A - Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 174(6): 685-700.

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Abstract
In the stick insect Carausius morosus identified nonspiking interneurons (type E4) were investigated in the mesothoracic ganglion during intra- and intersegmental reflexes and during searching and walking. In the standing and in the actively moving animal interneurons of type E4 drive the excitatory extensor tibiae motoneurons, up to four excitatory protractor coxae motoneurons, and the common inhibitor 1 motoneuron (Figs. 1-4). In the standing animal a depolarization of this type of interneuron is induced by tactile stimuli to the tarsi of the ipsilateral front, middle and hind legs (Fig. 5). This response precedes and accompanies the observed activation of the affected middle leg motoneurons. The same is true when compensatory leg placement reflexes are elicited by tactile stimuli given to the tarsi of the legs (Fig. 6). During forward walking the membrane potential of interneurons of type E4 is strongly modulated in the step-cycle (Figs. 8-10). The peak depolarization occurs at the transition from stance to swing. The oscillations in membrane potential are correlated with the activity profile of the extensor motoneurons and the common inhibitor 1 (Fig. 9). The described properties of interneuron type E4 in the actively behaving animal show that these interneurons are involved in the organization and coordination of the motor output of the proximal leg joints during reflex movements and during walking.
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Büschges A, Kittmann R, Schmitz J. Identified nonspiking interneurons in leg reflexes and during walking in the stick insect. Journal of Comparative Physiology, A - Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology. 1994;174(6):685-700.
Büschges, A., Kittmann, R., & Schmitz, J. (1994). Identified nonspiking interneurons in leg reflexes and during walking in the stick insect. Journal of Comparative Physiology, A - Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology, 174(6), 685-700.
Büschges, A., Kittmann, R., and Schmitz, J. (1994). Identified nonspiking interneurons in leg reflexes and during walking in the stick insect. Journal of Comparative Physiology, A - Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 174, 685-700.
Büschges, A., Kittmann, R., & Schmitz, J., 1994. Identified nonspiking interneurons in leg reflexes and during walking in the stick insect. Journal of Comparative Physiology, A - Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology, 174(6), p 685-700.
A. Büschges, R. Kittmann, and J. Schmitz, “Identified nonspiking interneurons in leg reflexes and during walking in the stick insect”, Journal of Comparative Physiology, A - Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology, vol. 174, 1994, pp. 685-700.
Büschges, A., Kittmann, R., Schmitz, J.: Identified nonspiking interneurons in leg reflexes and during walking in the stick insect. Journal of Comparative Physiology, A - Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology. 174, 685-700 (1994).
Büschges, A., Kittmann, R., and Schmitz, Josef. “Identified nonspiking interneurons in leg reflexes and during walking in the stick insect”. Journal of Comparative Physiology, A - Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 174.6 (1994): 685-700.
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