Field metabolic rate of lactating female Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis): the influence of offspring age and environment

Trillmich F, Kooyman GL (2001)
Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 129(4): 741-749.

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Galapagos fur seals, Arctocephalus galapagoensis, live in a seasonal environment which varies strongly in productivity from year to year. We measured how the field metabolic rates (FMR) of lactating females varied with season, pup age and year. Energy expenditure was measured using doubly labeled water (DLW) during the cold seasons of 1984 and 1985 in 9 mothers of 1-3-month-old pups and 5 mothers of yearlings, and during the 1986 warm season in 8 mothers of 6-month-old pups. Young pups gained 0.84% mass/day during the cold season, but larger pups during the warm season lost 1.25% mass/day. During the warm season, females had lower relative total body water than during the cold season suggesting higher fat content during the warm, less productive season, but the effect was even more marked when comparing different years of the study: fat content was high in 1984 and 1986 and low in 1985. The FMR of mothers varied from 134 to 167 W but did not show significant differences between any of the pup age-groups. Among the years of the study, FMR showed only a trend towards low energy expenditure of mothers of young pups in 1984. The mean FMR was lower than for other otariids. Mothers may limit energy expenditure independent of pup age and season to minimize their own risk of starvation in an environment of comparatively low productivity, varying unpredictably due to frequent El Nino events.
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Trillmich F, Kooyman GL. Field metabolic rate of lactating female Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis): the influence of offspring age and environment. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2001;129(4):741-749.
Trillmich, F., & Kooyman, G. L. (2001). Field metabolic rate of lactating female Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis): the influence of offspring age and environment. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol, 129(4), 741-749.
Trillmich, F., and Kooyman, G. L. (2001). Field metabolic rate of lactating female Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis): the influence of offspring age and environment. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 129, 741-749.
Trillmich, F., & Kooyman, G.L., 2001. Field metabolic rate of lactating female Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis): the influence of offspring age and environment. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol, 129(4), p 741-749.
F. Trillmich and G.L. Kooyman, “Field metabolic rate of lactating female Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis): the influence of offspring age and environment”, Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol, vol. 129, 2001, pp. 741-749.
Trillmich, F., Kooyman, G.L.: Field metabolic rate of lactating female Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis): the influence of offspring age and environment. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 129, 741-749 (2001).
Trillmich, Fritz, and Kooyman, G L. “Field metabolic rate of lactating female Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis): the influence of offspring age and environment”. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 129.4 (2001): 741-749.
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