Inactivation of muscle chloride channel by transposon insertion in myotonic mice

Steinmeyer K, Klocke R, Ortland C, Gronemeier M, Jockusch H, Grunder S, Jentsch TJ (1991)
NATURE 354(6351): 304-308.

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Abstract
MYOTONIA (stiffness and impaired relaxation of skeletal muscle) is a symptom of several diseases caused by repetitive firing of action potentials in muscle membranes 1. Purely myotonic human diseases are dominant myotonia congenita (Thomsen) and recessive generalized myotonia (Becker), whereas myotonic dystrophy is a systemic disease. Muscle hyperexcitability was attributed to defects in sodium channels 2,3 and/or to a decrease in chloride conductance (in Becker's myotonia 4 and in genetic animal models 5-10). Experimental blockage of Cl- conductance (normally 70-85% of resting conductance in muscle") in fact elicits myotonia 1,9. ADR (ref. 12) mice are a realistic animal model 5-7,12-18 for recessive autosomal myotonia. In addition to Cl- conductance 5, many other parameters 6,12,16 are changed in muscles of homozygous animals. We have now cloned the major mammalian skeletal muscle chloride channel (ClC-1) 19. Here we report that in ADR mice a transposon of the ETn family 20-23 has inserted into the corresponding gene, destroying its coding potential for several membrane-spanning domains. Together with the lack of recombination between the Clc-1 gene and the adr locus, this strongly suggests a lack of functional chloride channels as the primary cause of mouse myotonia.
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Steinmeyer K, Klocke R, Ortland C, et al. Inactivation of muscle chloride channel by transposon insertion in myotonic mice. NATURE. 1991;354(6351):304-308.
Steinmeyer, K., Klocke , R., Ortland , C., Gronemeier , M., Jockusch, H., Grunder , S., & Jentsch , T. J. (1991). Inactivation of muscle chloride channel by transposon insertion in myotonic mice. NATURE, 354(6351), 304-308.
Steinmeyer, K., Klocke , R., Ortland , C., Gronemeier , M., Jockusch, H., Grunder , S., and Jentsch , T. J. (1991). Inactivation of muscle chloride channel by transposon insertion in myotonic mice. NATURE 354, 304-308.
Steinmeyer, K., et al., 1991. Inactivation of muscle chloride channel by transposon insertion in myotonic mice. NATURE, 354(6351), p 304-308.
K. Steinmeyer, et al., “Inactivation of muscle chloride channel by transposon insertion in myotonic mice”, NATURE, vol. 354, 1991, pp. 304-308.
Steinmeyer, K., Klocke , R., Ortland , C., Gronemeier , M., Jockusch, H., Grunder , S., Jentsch , T.J.: Inactivation of muscle chloride channel by transposon insertion in myotonic mice. NATURE. 354, 304-308 (1991).
Steinmeyer, K, Klocke , R, Ortland , C, Gronemeier , M, Jockusch, Harald, Grunder , S, and Jentsch , TJ. “Inactivation of muscle chloride channel by transposon insertion in myotonic mice”. NATURE 354.6351 (1991): 304-308.
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