Anticipatory Stress Influences Decision Making Under Explicit Risk Conditions

Starcke K, Wolf OT, Markowitsch HJ, Brand M (2008)
Behavioral Neuroscience 122(6): 1352-1360.

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Recent research has suggested that stress may affect memory, executive functioning, and decision making on the basis of emotional feedback processing. The current study examined whether anticipatory stress affects decision making measured with the Game of Dice Task (GDT), a decision-making task with explicit and stable rules that taps both executive functioning and feedback learning. The authors induced stress in 20 participants by having them anticipate giving a public speech and also examined 20 comparison subjects. The authors assessed the level of stress with questionnaires and endocrine markers (salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase), both revealing that speech anticipation led to increased stress. Results of the GDT showed that participants under stress scored significantly lower than the comparison group and that GDT performance was negatively correlated with the increase of cortisol. Our results indicate that stress can lead to disadvantageous decision making even when explicit and stable information about outcome contingencies is provided.
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Starcke K, Wolf OT, Markowitsch HJ, Brand M. Anticipatory Stress Influences Decision Making Under Explicit Risk Conditions. Behavioral Neuroscience. 2008;122(6):1352-1360.
Starcke, K., Wolf, O. T., Markowitsch, H. J., & Brand, M. (2008). Anticipatory Stress Influences Decision Making Under Explicit Risk Conditions. Behavioral Neuroscience, 122(6), 1352-1360. doi:10.1037/a0013281
Starcke, K., Wolf, O. T., Markowitsch, H. J., and Brand, M. (2008). Anticipatory Stress Influences Decision Making Under Explicit Risk Conditions. Behavioral Neuroscience 122, 1352-1360.
Starcke, K., et al., 2008. Anticipatory Stress Influences Decision Making Under Explicit Risk Conditions. Behavioral Neuroscience, 122(6), p 1352-1360.
K. Starcke, et al., “Anticipatory Stress Influences Decision Making Under Explicit Risk Conditions”, Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 122, 2008, pp. 1352-1360.
Starcke, K., Wolf, O.T., Markowitsch, H.J., Brand, M.: Anticipatory Stress Influences Decision Making Under Explicit Risk Conditions. Behavioral Neuroscience. 122, 1352-1360 (2008).
Starcke, Katrin, Wolf, Oliver T., Markowitsch, Hans J., and Brand, Matthias. “Anticipatory Stress Influences Decision Making Under Explicit Risk Conditions”. Behavioral Neuroscience 122.6 (2008): 1352-1360.
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