Unsteady flow field around a human hand and propulsive force in swimming

Matsuuchi K, Miwa T, Nomura T, Sakakibara J, Shintani H, Ungerechts B (2009)
Journal of Biomechanics 42(1): 42-47.

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Much effort has been undertaken for the estimation of propulsive force of swimmers in the front crawl. Estimation is typically based on steady flow theory: the so-called quasi-steady analysis. Flow fields around a swimmer, however, are extremely unsteady because the change direction of hand produces unsteady vortex motions. To evaluate the force correctly, it is necessary to know the unsteady properties determined from the vortex dynamics because that unsteadiness is known to make the force greater. Unsteady flow measurements were made for this study using a sophisticated technique called particle image velocimetry (PIV) in several horizontal planes for subjects swimming in a flume. Using that method, a 100 time-sequential flow fields are obtainable simultaneously. Each flow held was calculated from two particle images ming the cross-correlation method. The intensity of vortices and their locations were identified. A strong vortex was generated near the hand and then shed by directional change of the hand in the transition phase from in-sweep to out-sweep. When the vortex was shed, a new vortex rotating in the opposite direction around the hand was created. The pair of vortices induced the velocity component in the direction opposite to the swimming. Results of this study show that the momentum change attributable to the increase in this velocity component is the origin of thrust force by the hand. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Matsuuchi K, Miwa T, Nomura T, Sakakibara J, Shintani H, Ungerechts B. Unsteady flow field around a human hand and propulsive force in swimming. Journal of Biomechanics. 2009;42(1):42-47.
Matsuuchi, K., Miwa, T., Nomura, T., Sakakibara, J., Shintani, H., & Ungerechts, B. (2009). Unsteady flow field around a human hand and propulsive force in swimming. Journal of Biomechanics, 42(1), 42-47.
Matsuuchi, K., Miwa, T., Nomura, T., Sakakibara, J., Shintani, H., and Ungerechts, B. (2009). Unsteady flow field around a human hand and propulsive force in swimming. Journal of Biomechanics 42, 42-47.
Matsuuchi, K., et al., 2009. Unsteady flow field around a human hand and propulsive force in swimming. Journal of Biomechanics, 42(1), p 42-47.
K. Matsuuchi, et al., “Unsteady flow field around a human hand and propulsive force in swimming”, Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 42, 2009, pp. 42-47.
Matsuuchi, K., Miwa, T., Nomura, T., Sakakibara, J., Shintani, H., Ungerechts, B.: Unsteady flow field around a human hand and propulsive force in swimming. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 42-47 (2009).
Matsuuchi, K., Miwa, T., Nomura, T., Sakakibara, J., Shintani, H., and Ungerechts, Bodo. “Unsteady flow field around a human hand and propulsive force in swimming”. Journal of Biomechanics 42.1 (2009): 42-47.
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9 Citations in Europe PMC

Data provided by Europe PubMed Central.

The influence of the hand's acceleration and the relative contribution of drag and lift forces in front crawl swimming.
Gourgoulis V, Boli A, Aggeloussis N, Antoniou P, Toubekis A, Mavromatis G., J Sports Sci 33(7), 2015
PMID: 25429796
Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a hand and its flow field during sculling motion.
Takagi H, Shimada S, Miwa T, Kudo S, Sanders R, Matsuuchi K., Hum Mov Sci 38(), 2014
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Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a robotic arm and its flow field: application to the crawl stroke.
Takagi H, Nakashima M, Ozaki T, Matsuuchi K., J Biomech 47(6), 2014
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The effect of leg kick on sprint front crawl swimming.
Gourgoulis V, Boli A, Aggeloussis N, Toubekis A, Antoniou P, Kasimatis P, Vezos N, Michalopoulou M, Kambas A, Mavromatis G., J Sports Sci 32(3), 2014
PMID: 24016316
Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a robotic hand and its flow field.
Takagi H, Nakashima M, Ozaki T, Matsuuchi K., J Biomech 46(11), 2013
PMID: 23764175
Phase-dependence of elbow muscle coactivation in front crawl swimming.
Lauer J, Figueiredo P, Vilas-Boas JP, Fernandes RJ, Rouard AH., J Electromyogr Kinesiol 23(4), 2013
PMID: 23489716
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Dos Santos MA, Junior ML, de Castro Melo WV, da Costa AV, Costa Mda C., Open Access J Sports Med 3(), 2012
PMID: 24198594

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