Molecular basis of multiple sulfatase deficiency, mucolipidosis II/III and Niemann-Pick C1 disease - Lysosomal storage disorders caused by defects of non-lysosomal proteins

Dierks T, Schlotawa L, Frese M-A, Radhakrishnan K, von Figura K, Schmidt B (2009)
BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR CELL RESEARCH 1793(4): 710-725.

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Abstract
Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), mucolipidosis (MIL) II/III and Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease are rare but fatal lysosomal storage disorders caused by the genetic defect of non-lysosomal proteins. The NPC1 protein mainly localizes to late endosomes and is essential for cholesterol redistribution from endocytosed LDL to cellular membranes. NPC1 deficiency leads to lysosomal accumulation of a broad range of lipids. The precise functional mechanism of this membrane protein, however, remains puzzling. ML II, also termed I cell disease. and the less severe ML III result from deficiencies of the Golgi enzyme N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphotransferase leading to a global defect of lysosome biogenesis. In patient cells, newly synthesized lysosomal proteins are not equipped with the critical lysosomal trafficking marker mannose 6-phosphate, thus escaping from lysosomal sorting at the trans Golgi network. MSD affects the entire sulfatase family, at least seven members of which are lysosomal enzymes that are specifically involved in the degradation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, sulfolipids or other sulfated molecules. The combined deficiencies of all sulfatases result from a defective post-translational modification by the ER-localized formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE), which oxidizes a specific cysteine residue to formylglycine, the catalytic residue enabling a unique mechanism of sulfate ester hydrolysis. This review gives an update on the molecular bases of these enigmatic diseases, which have been challenging researchers since many decades and so far led to a number of surprising findings that give deeper insight into both the cell biology and the pathobiochemistry underlying these complex disorders. In case of MSD, considerable progress has been made in recent years towards an understanding of disease-causing FGE mutations. First approaches to link molecular parameters with clinical manifestation have been described and even therapeutical options have been addressed. Further. the discovery of FGE as an essential sulfatase activating enzyme has considerable impact on enzyme replacement or gene therapy of lysosomal storage disorders caused by single sulfatase deficiencies. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Dierks T, Schlotawa L, Frese M-A, Radhakrishnan K, von Figura K, Schmidt B. Molecular basis of multiple sulfatase deficiency, mucolipidosis II/III and Niemann-Pick C1 disease - Lysosomal storage disorders caused by defects of non-lysosomal proteins. BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR CELL RESEARCH. 2009;1793(4):710-725.
Dierks, T., Schlotawa, L., Frese, M. - A., Radhakrishnan, K., von Figura, K., & Schmidt, B. (2009). Molecular basis of multiple sulfatase deficiency, mucolipidosis II/III and Niemann-Pick C1 disease - Lysosomal storage disorders caused by defects of non-lysosomal proteins. BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR CELL RESEARCH, 1793(4), 710-725.
Dierks, T., Schlotawa, L., Frese, M. - A., Radhakrishnan, K., von Figura, K., and Schmidt, B. (2009). Molecular basis of multiple sulfatase deficiency, mucolipidosis II/III and Niemann-Pick C1 disease - Lysosomal storage disorders caused by defects of non-lysosomal proteins. BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR CELL RESEARCH 1793, 710-725.
Dierks, T., et al., 2009. Molecular basis of multiple sulfatase deficiency, mucolipidosis II/III and Niemann-Pick C1 disease - Lysosomal storage disorders caused by defects of non-lysosomal proteins. BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR CELL RESEARCH, 1793(4), p 710-725.
T. Dierks, et al., “Molecular basis of multiple sulfatase deficiency, mucolipidosis II/III and Niemann-Pick C1 disease - Lysosomal storage disorders caused by defects of non-lysosomal proteins”, BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR CELL RESEARCH, vol. 1793, 2009, pp. 710-725.
Dierks, T., Schlotawa, L., Frese, M.-A., Radhakrishnan, K., von Figura, K., Schmidt, B.: Molecular basis of multiple sulfatase deficiency, mucolipidosis II/III and Niemann-Pick C1 disease - Lysosomal storage disorders caused by defects of non-lysosomal proteins. BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR CELL RESEARCH. 1793, 710-725 (2009).
Dierks, Thomas, Schlotawa, Lars, Frese, Marc-Andre, Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan, von Figura, Kurt, and Schmidt, Bernhard. “Molecular basis of multiple sulfatase deficiency, mucolipidosis II/III and Niemann-Pick C1 disease - Lysosomal storage disorders caused by defects of non-lysosomal proteins”. BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR CELL RESEARCH 1793.4 (2009): 710-725.
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