Heritability of facet-level traits in a cross-cultural twin sample: Support for a hierarchical model of personality

Jang KL, McCrae RR, Angleitner A, Riemann R, Livesley WJ (1998)
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 74(6): 1556-1565.

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The common variance among personality traits can be summarized in the factors of the five-factor model, which are known to be heritable. This study examined heritability of the residual specific variance in facet-level traits from the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Analyses of raw and residual facet scales across Canadian (183 monozygotic [MZ] and 175 dizogotic [DZ] pairs) and German (435 MZ and 205 DZ pairs) twin samples showed genetic and environmental influences of the same type and magnitude across the 2 samples for most facets. Additive genetic effects accounted for 25% to 65% of the reliable specific variance. Results provide strong support for hierarchical models of personality that posit a large number of narrow traits in addition to a few broader trait factors or domains. Facet-level traits are not simply exemplars of the broad factors they define; they are discrete constructs with their own heritable and thus biological basis.
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Jang KL, McCrae RR, Angleitner A, Riemann R, Livesley WJ. Heritability of facet-level traits in a cross-cultural twin sample: Support for a hierarchical model of personality. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY. 1998;74(6):1556-1565.
Jang, K. L., McCrae, R. R., Angleitner, A., Riemann, R., & Livesley, W. J. (1998). Heritability of facet-level traits in a cross-cultural twin sample: Support for a hierarchical model of personality. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 74(6), 1556-1565.
Jang, K. L., McCrae, R. R., Angleitner, A., Riemann, R., and Livesley, W. J. (1998). Heritability of facet-level traits in a cross-cultural twin sample: Support for a hierarchical model of personality. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 74, 1556-1565.
Jang, K.L., et al., 1998. Heritability of facet-level traits in a cross-cultural twin sample: Support for a hierarchical model of personality. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 74(6), p 1556-1565.
K.L. Jang, et al., “Heritability of facet-level traits in a cross-cultural twin sample: Support for a hierarchical model of personality”, JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, vol. 74, 1998, pp. 1556-1565.
Jang, K.L., McCrae, R.R., Angleitner, A., Riemann, R., Livesley, W.J.: Heritability of facet-level traits in a cross-cultural twin sample: Support for a hierarchical model of personality. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY. 74, 1556-1565 (1998).
Jang, KL, McCrae, RR, Angleitner, Alois, Riemann, Rainer, and Livesley, WJ. “Heritability of facet-level traits in a cross-cultural twin sample: Support for a hierarchical model of personality”. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 74.6 (1998): 1556-1565.
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