# Embedded topological defects in hot electroweak theory: a lattice study

Chernodub MN, Gubarev FV, Ilgenfritz E-M, Schiller A (1998) *Physics Letters B* 434(1-2): 83-91.

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We study the properties of Nambu monopoles and Z-vortices in the 3D lattice SU(2) Higgs theory which represents the Standard Model at high temperature. We show that the densities of the Nambu monopoles and the Z-vortices are O(1) in the symmetric phase and generically small in the Higgs phase. Near to the critical Higgs mass and in the vicinity of the phase transition the densities are no more negligible in the broken phase. The percolation probability of the Z-vortex lines is found as a new disorder parameter for this phase transition. We conclude that the transition to the symmetric phase is accompanied by Z-vortex condensation. Simulations comparing elementary and extended vortices and monopoles at different beta(G) values, aiming to show that the density of vortices and monopoles of fixed physical size might have a well-defined continuum limit, gives encouraging but so far inconclusive results. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

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Chernodub MN, Gubarev FV, Ilgenfritz E-M, Schiller A. Embedded topological defects in hot electroweak theory: a lattice study.

*Physics Letters B*. 1998;434(1-2):83-91.Chernodub, M. N., Gubarev, F. V., Ilgenfritz, E. - M., & Schiller, A. (1998). Embedded topological defects in hot electroweak theory: a lattice study.

*Physics Letters B*,*434*(1-2), 83-91. doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(98)00754-0Chernodub, M. N., Gubarev, F. V., Ilgenfritz, E. - M., and Schiller, A. (1998). Embedded topological defects in hot electroweak theory: a lattice study.

*Physics Letters B*434, 83-91.Chernodub, M.N., et al., 1998. Embedded topological defects in hot electroweak theory: a lattice study.

*Physics Letters B*, 434(1-2), p 83-91. M.N. Chernodub, et al., “Embedded topological defects in hot electroweak theory: a lattice study”,

*Physics Letters B*, vol. 434, 1998, pp. 83-91. Chernodub, M.N., Gubarev, F.V., Ilgenfritz, E.-M., Schiller, A.: Embedded topological defects in hot electroweak theory: a lattice study. Physics Letters B. 434, 83-91 (1998).

Chernodub, M. N., Gubarev, F. V., Ilgenfritz, Ernst-Michael, and Schiller, A. “Embedded topological defects in hot electroweak theory: a lattice study”.

*Physics Letters B*434.1-2 (1998): 83-91.
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