Vortex tension as an order parameter in three-dimensional U(1) plus Higgs theory

Kajantie K, Laine M, Neuhaus T, Peisa J, Rajantie A, Rummukainen K (1999)
NUCLEAR PHYSICS B 546(1-2): 351-365.

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We use lattice Monte Carlo simulations to study non-perturbatively the tension, i.e. the free energy per unit length, of an infinitely long vortex in the three-dimensional U(1) + Higgs theory, This theory is the low-energy effective theory of high-temperature scalar electrodynamics, the standard framework for cosmic string studies. The vortex tension is measured as a function of the mass parameter at a large value of the Higgs self-coupling, where the transition between the phases is continuous. It is shown that the tension gives an order parameter that can distinguish between the two phases of the system. We argue that the vortex tension can describe the physics of long strings without lattice artifacts, unlike vortex network percolation. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.
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Kajantie K, Laine M, Neuhaus T, Peisa J, Rajantie A, Rummukainen K. Vortex tension as an order parameter in three-dimensional U(1) plus Higgs theory. NUCLEAR PHYSICS B. 1999;546(1-2):351-365.
Kajantie, K., Laine, M., Neuhaus, T., Peisa, J., Rajantie, A., & Rummukainen, K. (1999). Vortex tension as an order parameter in three-dimensional U(1) plus Higgs theory. NUCLEAR PHYSICS B, 546(1-2), 351-365.
Kajantie, K., Laine, M., Neuhaus, T., Peisa, J., Rajantie, A., and Rummukainen, K. (1999). Vortex tension as an order parameter in three-dimensional U(1) plus Higgs theory. NUCLEAR PHYSICS B 546, 351-365.
Kajantie, K., et al., 1999. Vortex tension as an order parameter in three-dimensional U(1) plus Higgs theory. NUCLEAR PHYSICS B, 546(1-2), p 351-365.
K. Kajantie, et al., “Vortex tension as an order parameter in three-dimensional U(1) plus Higgs theory”, NUCLEAR PHYSICS B, vol. 546, 1999, pp. 351-365.
Kajantie, K., Laine, M., Neuhaus, T., Peisa, J., Rajantie, A., Rummukainen, K.: Vortex tension as an order parameter in three-dimensional U(1) plus Higgs theory. NUCLEAR PHYSICS B. 546, 351-365 (1999).
Kajantie, K, Laine, Mikko, Neuhaus, Thomas, Peisa, J, Rajantie, A, and Rummukainen, K. “Vortex tension as an order parameter in three-dimensional U(1) plus Higgs theory”. NUCLEAR PHYSICS B 546.1-2 (1999): 351-365.
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