Genetic and environmental influences on observed personality: Evidence from the German observational study of adult twins

Borkenau P, Riemann R, Angleitner A, Spinath FM (2001)
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 80(4): 655-668.

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Abstract
Previous behavior-genetic research on adult personality relied primarily on self-reports or peer reports that may be subject to contrast effects, resulting in biased estimates of genetic and environmental influences. In the German Observational Study of Adult Twins (GOSAT), personality traits of 168 monozygotic (MZ) and 132 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs were rated on 35 adjective scales, largely markers of the Big 5. The ratings were provided by 120 judges who never met the toxins but observed videotaped behaviors of 1 twin of each pair in 1 of 15 different settings. The aggregated video-based trait ratings were highly reliable, and substantial correlations were obtained between MZ as well as DZ twin,, Model-fit analyses suggested about 40% genetic, 25% shared environmental, and 35% nonshared environmental influence. Extraversion was the only trait that seemed not to be influenced by shared environment.
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Borkenau P, Riemann R, Angleitner A, Spinath FM. Genetic and environmental influences on observed personality: Evidence from the German observational study of adult twins. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY. 2001;80(4):655-668.
Borkenau, P., Riemann, R., Angleitner, A., & Spinath, F. M. (2001). Genetic and environmental influences on observed personality: Evidence from the German observational study of adult twins. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 80(4), 655-668.
Borkenau, P., Riemann, R., Angleitner, A., and Spinath, F. M. (2001). Genetic and environmental influences on observed personality: Evidence from the German observational study of adult twins. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 80, 655-668.
Borkenau, P., et al., 2001. Genetic and environmental influences on observed personality: Evidence from the German observational study of adult twins. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 80(4), p 655-668.
P. Borkenau, et al., “Genetic and environmental influences on observed personality: Evidence from the German observational study of adult twins”, JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, vol. 80, 2001, pp. 655-668.
Borkenau, P., Riemann, R., Angleitner, A., Spinath, F.M.: Genetic and environmental influences on observed personality: Evidence from the German observational study of adult twins. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY. 80, 655-668 (2001).
Borkenau, P, Riemann, Rainer, Angleitner, Alois, and Spinath, FM. “Genetic and environmental influences on observed personality: Evidence from the German observational study of adult twins”. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 80.4 (2001): 655-668.
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