Attosecond metrology

Hentschel M, Kienberger R, Spielmann C, Reider GA, Milosevic N, Brabec T, Corkum P, Heinzmann U, Drescher M, Krausz F (2001)
NATURE 414(6863): 509-513.

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Abstract
The generation of ultrashort pulses is a key to exploring the dynamic behaviour of matter on ever-shorter timescales. Recent developments have pushed the duration of laser pulses close to its natural limit-the wave cycle, which lasts somewhat longer than one femtosecond (1 fs = 10(-15) s) in the visible spectral range. Time-resolved measurements with these pulses are able to trace dynamics of molecular structure, but fail to capture electronic processes occurring on an attosecond (1 as = 10(-18) s) timescale. Here we trace electronic dynamics with a time resolution of less than or equal to 150 as by using a subfemtosecond soft-X-ray pulse and a few-cycle visible light pulse. Our measurement indicates an attosecond response of the atomic system, a soft-X-ray pulse duration of 650 +/- 150 as and an attosecond synchronism of the soft-X-ray pulse with the light field. The demonstrated experimental tools and techniques open the door to attosecond spectroscopy of bound electrons.
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Hentschel M, Kienberger R, Spielmann C, et al. Attosecond metrology. NATURE. 2001;414(6863):509-513.
Hentschel, M., Kienberger, R., Spielmann, C., Reider, G. A., Milosevic, N., Brabec, T., Corkum, P., et al. (2001). Attosecond metrology. NATURE, 414(6863), 509-513.
Hentschel, M., Kienberger, R., Spielmann, C., Reider, G. A., Milosevic, N., Brabec, T., Corkum, P., Heinzmann, U., Drescher, M., and Krausz, F. (2001). Attosecond metrology. NATURE 414, 509-513.
Hentschel, M., et al., 2001. Attosecond metrology. NATURE, 414(6863), p 509-513.
M. Hentschel, et al., “Attosecond metrology”, NATURE, vol. 414, 2001, pp. 509-513.
Hentschel, M., Kienberger, R., Spielmann, C., Reider, G.A., Milosevic, N., Brabec, T., Corkum, P., Heinzmann, U., Drescher, M., Krausz, F.: Attosecond metrology. NATURE. 414, 509-513 (2001).
Hentschel, M, Kienberger, R, Spielmann, C, Reider, GA, Milosevic, N, Brabec, T, Corkum, P, Heinzmann, Ulrich, Drescher, Markus, and Krausz, F. “Attosecond metrology”. NATURE 414.6863 (2001): 509-513.
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