Spontaneous ratchet effect in a granular gas

van der Meer D, Reimann P, van der Weele K, Lohse D (2004)
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 92(18).

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Abstract
The spontaneous clustering of a vibrofluidized granular gas is employed to generate directed transport in two different compartmentalized systems: a granular fountain in which the transport takes the form of convection rolls, and a granular ratchet with a spontaneous particle current perpendicular to the direction of energy input. In both instances, transport is not due to any system-intrinsic anisotropy, but arises as a spontaneous collective symmetry breaking effect of many interacting granular particles. The experimental and numerical results are quantitatively accounted for within a flux model.
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van der Meer D, Reimann P, van der Weele K, Lohse D. Spontaneous ratchet effect in a granular gas. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS. 2004;92(18).
van der Meer, D., Reimann, P., van der Weele, K., & Lohse, D. (2004). Spontaneous ratchet effect in a granular gas. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 92(18).
van der Meer, D., Reimann, P., van der Weele, K., and Lohse, D. (2004). Spontaneous ratchet effect in a granular gas. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 92.
van der Meer, D., et al., 2004. Spontaneous ratchet effect in a granular gas. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 92(18).
D. van der Meer, et al., “Spontaneous ratchet effect in a granular gas”, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, vol. 92, 2004.
van der Meer, D., Reimann, P., van der Weele, K., Lohse, D.: Spontaneous ratchet effect in a granular gas. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS. 92, (2004).
van der Meer, D, Reimann, Peter, van der Weele, K, and Lohse, D. “Spontaneous ratchet effect in a granular gas”. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 92.18 (2004).
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