The N terminus of bacterial elongation factor Tu elicits innate immunity in Arabidopsis plants

Kunze G, Zipfel C, Robatzek S, Niehaus K, Boller T, Felix G (2004)
Plant Cell 16(12): 3496-3507.

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Innate immunity is based on the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Here, we show that elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), the most abundant bacterial protein, acts as a PAMP in Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassicaceae. EF-Tu is highly conserved in all bacteria and is known to be N-acetylated in Escherichia coli. Arabidopsis plants specifically recognize the N terminus of the protein, and an N-acetylated peptide comprising the first 18 amino acids, termed elf 18, is fully active as inducer of defense responses. The shorter peptide, elf 12, comprising the acetyl group and the first 12 N-terminal amino acids, is inactive as elicitor but acts as a specific antagonist for EF-Tu-related elicitors. In leaves of Arabidopsis plants, elf18 induces an oxidative burst and biosynthesis of ethylene, and it triggers resistance to subsequent infection with pathogenic bacteria.
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Kunze G, Zipfel C, Robatzek S, Niehaus K, Boller T, Felix G. The N terminus of bacterial elongation factor Tu elicits innate immunity in Arabidopsis plants. Plant Cell. 2004;16(12):3496-3507.
Kunze, G., Zipfel, C., Robatzek, S., Niehaus, K., Boller, T., & Felix, G. (2004). The N terminus of bacterial elongation factor Tu elicits innate immunity in Arabidopsis plants. Plant Cell, 16(12), 3496-3507. doi:10.1105/tpc.104.026765
Kunze, G., Zipfel, C., Robatzek, S., Niehaus, K., Boller, T., and Felix, G. (2004). The N terminus of bacterial elongation factor Tu elicits innate immunity in Arabidopsis plants. Plant Cell 16, 3496-3507.
Kunze, G., et al., 2004. The N terminus of bacterial elongation factor Tu elicits innate immunity in Arabidopsis plants. Plant Cell, 16(12), p 3496-3507.
G. Kunze, et al., “The N terminus of bacterial elongation factor Tu elicits innate immunity in Arabidopsis plants”, Plant Cell, vol. 16, 2004, pp. 3496-3507.
Kunze, G., Zipfel, C., Robatzek, S., Niehaus, K., Boller, T., Felix, G.: The N terminus of bacterial elongation factor Tu elicits innate immunity in Arabidopsis plants. Plant Cell. 16, 3496-3507 (2004).
Kunze, G., Zipfel, C., Robatzek, S., Niehaus, Karsten, Boller, T., and Felix, G. “The N terminus of bacterial elongation factor Tu elicits innate immunity in Arabidopsis plants”. Plant Cell 16.12 (2004): 3496-3507.
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