Decision-making deficits of Korsakoff patients in a new gambling task with explicit rules: Associations with executive functions

Brand M, Fujiwara E, Borsutzky S, Kalbe E, Kessler J, Markowitsch HJ (2005)
NEUROPSYCHOLOGY 19(3): 267-277.

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Abstract
Decision-making deficits reflected by risky decisions in gambling tasks have been associated with frontal lobe dysfunctions in various neurologic and psychiatric populations. The question remains whether decision-making impairments are related to executive functions. The authors developed a new gambling task, the Game of Dice Task, with explicit and stable rules for reinforcement and punishment, to investigate relations between executive functions and risk-taking behavior in an explicit decision-making situation. A sample of 35 alcoholic Korsakoff patients and 35 healthy controls was examined with the Game of Dice Task and a neuropsychological test battery. Results show that Korsakoff patients are strongly impaired in this explicit decision-making task and that these disturbances are correlated with specific executive functions.
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Brand M, Fujiwara E, Borsutzky S, Kalbe E, Kessler J, Markowitsch HJ. Decision-making deficits of Korsakoff patients in a new gambling task with explicit rules: Associations with executive functions. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 2005;19(3):267-277.
Brand, M., Fujiwara, E., Borsutzky, S., Kalbe, E., Kessler, J., & Markowitsch, H. J. (2005). Decision-making deficits of Korsakoff patients in a new gambling task with explicit rules: Associations with executive functions. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, 19(3), 267-277.
Brand, M., Fujiwara, E., Borsutzky, S., Kalbe, E., Kessler, J., and Markowitsch, H. J. (2005). Decision-making deficits of Korsakoff patients in a new gambling task with explicit rules: Associations with executive functions. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY 19, 267-277.
Brand, M., et al., 2005. Decision-making deficits of Korsakoff patients in a new gambling task with explicit rules: Associations with executive functions. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, 19(3), p 267-277.
M. Brand, et al., “Decision-making deficits of Korsakoff patients in a new gambling task with explicit rules: Associations with executive functions”, NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, vol. 19, 2005, pp. 267-277.
Brand, M., Fujiwara, E., Borsutzky, S., Kalbe, E., Kessler, J., Markowitsch, H.J.: Decision-making deficits of Korsakoff patients in a new gambling task with explicit rules: Associations with executive functions. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 19, 267-277 (2005).
Brand, M, Fujiwara, E, Borsutzky, S, Kalbe, E, Kessler, J, and Markowitsch, Hans J. “Decision-making deficits of Korsakoff patients in a new gambling task with explicit rules: Associations with executive functions”. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY 19.3 (2005): 267-277.
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