Temperature anisotropy in a driven granular gas

van der Meer D, Reimann P (2006)
EUROPHYSICS LETTERS 74(3): 384-390.

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When smooth granular material is fluidized by vertically shaking a container, we find that the temperature in the direction of energy input always exceeds the temperature in the other directions. An analytical model is presented which shows how the anisotropy can be traced back to the inelasticity of the interparticle collisions and the collisions with the wall. For a dilute granular gas, the model compares very well with molecular-dynamics simulations. It is concluded that any non-isotropic driving of a granular gas in a steady state necessarily causes anisotropy of the granular temperature.
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van der Meer D, Reimann P. Temperature anisotropy in a driven granular gas. EUROPHYSICS LETTERS. 2006;74(3):384-390.
van der Meer, D., & Reimann, P. (2006). Temperature anisotropy in a driven granular gas. EUROPHYSICS LETTERS, 74(3), 384-390.
van der Meer, D., and Reimann, P. (2006). Temperature anisotropy in a driven granular gas. EUROPHYSICS LETTERS 74, 384-390.
van der Meer, D., & Reimann, P., 2006. Temperature anisotropy in a driven granular gas. EUROPHYSICS LETTERS, 74(3), p 384-390.
D. van der Meer and P. Reimann, “Temperature anisotropy in a driven granular gas”, EUROPHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 74, 2006, pp. 384-390.
van der Meer, D., Reimann, P.: Temperature anisotropy in a driven granular gas. EUROPHYSICS LETTERS. 74, 384-390 (2006).
van der Meer, D, and Reimann, Peter. “Temperature anisotropy in a driven granular gas”. EUROPHYSICS LETTERS 74.3 (2006): 384-390.
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