Behavioral genetics of the higher-order factors of the Big Five

Jang KL, Livesley WJ, Ando J, Yamagata S, Suzuki A, Angleitner A, Ostendorf F, Riemann R, Spinath F (2006)
PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES 41(2): 261-272.

Journal Article | Published | English

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Abstract
There is empirical evidence that underlying the Big Five personality factors are two higher-order factors which have come to be known as "alpha" (a) and "beta" (beta). The alpha factor is defined by the agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability domains; whereas beta is delineated by extraversion and intellect. It has been argued that a and beta are important constructs because they bridge the gap between psychometric studies of personality and theories of personality development. However, it is unclear if alpha and beta are constructs that can be reliably reproduced across a diverse range of independent samples. In a sample of 1209 MZ and 701 DZ twin pairs from Canada, Germany, and Japan who completed the NEO-PI-R, factorial analyses of the five NEO-PI-R domains extracted two factors resembling alpha and beta. Subsequent multivariate genetic analyses revealed that this factor structure was a clear reflection of the organizing effects of multiple genetic influences, providing evidence for alpha and beta as stable heuristic devices that can be used to integrate personality measurement and developmental theory. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Jang KL, Livesley WJ, Ando J, et al. Behavioral genetics of the higher-order factors of the Big Five. PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES. 2006;41(2):261-272.
Jang, K. L., Livesley, W. J., Ando, J., Yamagata, S., Suzuki, A., Angleitner, A., Ostendorf, F., et al. (2006). Behavioral genetics of the higher-order factors of the Big Five. PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, 41(2), 261-272.
Jang, K. L., Livesley, W. J., Ando, J., Yamagata, S., Suzuki, A., Angleitner, A., Ostendorf, F., Riemann, R., and Spinath, F. (2006). Behavioral genetics of the higher-order factors of the Big Five. PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES 41, 261-272.
Jang, K.L., et al., 2006. Behavioral genetics of the higher-order factors of the Big Five. PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, 41(2), p 261-272.
K.L. Jang, et al., “Behavioral genetics of the higher-order factors of the Big Five”, PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, vol. 41, 2006, pp. 261-272.
Jang, K.L., Livesley, W.J., Ando, J., Yamagata, S., Suzuki, A., Angleitner, A., Ostendorf, F., Riemann, R., Spinath, F.: Behavioral genetics of the higher-order factors of the Big Five. PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES. 41, 261-272 (2006).
Jang, KL, Livesley, WJ, Ando, J, Yamagata, S, Suzuki, A, Angleitner, Alois, Ostendorf, Fritz, Riemann, Rainer, and Spinath, F. “Behavioral genetics of the higher-order factors of the Big Five”. PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES 41.2 (2006): 261-272.
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