Prevalence of hepatitis and HIV infections and vaccination rates in patients entering the heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland between 1994 and 2002

Gerlich M, Gschwend P, Uchtenhagen A, Krämer A, Rehm J (2006)
European Journal of Epidemiology 21(7): 545-549.

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Abstract
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains very prevalent in injection drug users (IDUs). In spite of recommended vaccinations against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV), many IDUs remain susceptible to HAV and HBV. Study population and methods: Patients entering heroin-assisted treatment between 2000 and 2002 (N = 210) were compared for infectious disease status with patients entering this treatment in 1998 (N = 243) and between 1994 and 1996 (N = 1035). Infection status was determined with the aid of questionnaires and blood tests for antibodies against HAV, HBV core antigen, HCV and HIV. Results: In the cohort 2000-2002 78.3% of the patients were HCV positive, 53.3% were HBV positive, 41.2% were HAV positive and 12.6% were HIV positive. In comparison to the cohorts entering the heroin-assisted treatment at an earlier time, there was a significant reduction of HBV and HAV infections, but not of HCV and HIV infections. 15.6% of the patients entering between 2000 and 2002 were vaccinated against HBV and 10.3% against HAV. 31.1% of patients at entrance were susceptible for HBV and 48.5% for HAV. In comparison to patients entering treatment in 1998 there was no significant increase in patients who were vaccinated against HBV. Conclusions: This data illustrates the need for improving HCV prevention and more consequent vaccination against HBV and HAV in IDUs.
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Gerlich M, Gschwend P, Uchtenhagen A, Krämer A, Rehm J. Prevalence of hepatitis and HIV infections and vaccination rates in patients entering the heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland between 1994 and 2002. European Journal of Epidemiology. 2006;21(7):545-549.
Gerlich, M., Gschwend, P., Uchtenhagen, A., Krämer, A., & Rehm, J. (2006). Prevalence of hepatitis and HIV infections and vaccination rates in patients entering the heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland between 1994 and 2002. European Journal of Epidemiology, 21(7), 545-549.
Gerlich, M., Gschwend, P., Uchtenhagen, A., Krämer, A., and Rehm, J. (2006). Prevalence of hepatitis and HIV infections and vaccination rates in patients entering the heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland between 1994 and 2002. European Journal of Epidemiology 21, 545-549.
Gerlich, M., et al., 2006. Prevalence of hepatitis and HIV infections and vaccination rates in patients entering the heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland between 1994 and 2002. European Journal of Epidemiology, 21(7), p 545-549.
M. Gerlich, et al., “Prevalence of hepatitis and HIV infections and vaccination rates in patients entering the heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland between 1994 and 2002”, European Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 21, 2006, pp. 545-549.
Gerlich, M., Gschwend, P., Uchtenhagen, A., Krämer, A., Rehm, J.: Prevalence of hepatitis and HIV infections and vaccination rates in patients entering the heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland between 1994 and 2002. European Journal of Epidemiology. 21, 545-549 (2006).
Gerlich, Miriam, Gschwend, Patrick, Uchtenhagen, Ambros, Krämer, Alexander, and Rehm, Juergen. “Prevalence of hepatitis and HIV infections and vaccination rates in patients entering the heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland between 1994 and 2002”. European Journal of Epidemiology 21.7 (2006): 545-549.
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