Associations between obesity and developmental functioning in pre-school children: a population-based study

Mond JM, Stich H, Hay PJ, Krämer A, Baune BT (2007)
International Journal of Obesity 31(7): 1068-1073.

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Abstract
Objective: To examine associations between obesity and impairment in developmental functioning in a general population sample of pre-school children. Method: Standardized medical examinations were conducted in nine consecutive cohorts of male and female children (n=9415) aged between 4.4 and 8.6 years (mean=6.0, s.d.=0.37) residing in the Lower Bavaria region of Germany. Tests designed to assess performance in subdivisions representing four broad developmental domains, namely, motor development, speech development, cognitive development and psycho-social development, were completed by all participants. Results: Boys had significantly higher rates of impairment than girls. The prevalence of obesity in boys was 2.4%, whereas in girls it was 4.3% (x(2)=21.51, P<0.01). After controlling for age, gender, year of recruitment and other potential covariates, the prevalence of impairment in gross motor skills was higher among obese male children than normal-weight male children (adjusted odds ratio=1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.02, 3.01, P<0.05), whereas the prevalence of impairment in the ability to focus attention was higher in obese female children than normal-weight female children (adjusted odds ratio=1.86, 95% CI=1.00, 3.44, P<0.05). Conclusions: The findings suggest that gender-specific associations between obesity and impairment in specific aspects of developmental functioning may be evident in younger children.
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Mond JM, Stich H, Hay PJ, Krämer A, Baune BT. Associations between obesity and developmental functioning in pre-school children: a population-based study. International Journal of Obesity. 2007;31(7):1068-1073.
Mond, J. M., Stich, H., Hay, P. J., Krämer, A., & Baune, B. T. (2007). Associations between obesity and developmental functioning in pre-school children: a population-based study. International Journal of Obesity, 31(7), 1068-1073.
Mond, J. M., Stich, H., Hay, P. J., Krämer, A., and Baune, B. T. (2007). Associations between obesity and developmental functioning in pre-school children: a population-based study. International Journal of Obesity 31, 1068-1073.
Mond, J.M., et al., 2007. Associations between obesity and developmental functioning in pre-school children: a population-based study. International Journal of Obesity, 31(7), p 1068-1073.
J.M. Mond, et al., “Associations between obesity and developmental functioning in pre-school children: a population-based study”, International Journal of Obesity, vol. 31, 2007, pp. 1068-1073.
Mond, J.M., Stich, H., Hay, P.J., Krämer, A., Baune, B.T.: Associations between obesity and developmental functioning in pre-school children: a population-based study. International Journal of Obesity. 31, 1068-1073 (2007).
Mond, J. M., Stich, H., Hay, P. J., Krämer, Alexander, and Baune, B. T. “Associations between obesity and developmental functioning in pre-school children: a population-based study”. International Journal of Obesity 31.7 (2007): 1068-1073.
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