The genome sequence of the tomato-pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis NCPPB382 reveals a large island involved in pathogenicity

Gartemann K-H, Abt B, Bekel T, Burger A, Engemann J, Fluegel M, Gaigalat L, Goesmann A, Graefen I, Kalinowski J, Kaup O, et al. (2008)
JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY 190(6): 2138-2149.

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Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a plant-pathogenic aetinomycete that causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. The nucleotide sequence of the genome of strain NCPPB382 was determined. The chromosome is circular, consists of 3.298 Mb, and has a high G+C content (72.6%). Annotation revealed 3,080 putative protein-encoding sequences; only 26 pseudogenes were detected. Two rrn operons, 45 tRNAs, and three small stable RNA genes were found. The two circular plasmids, pCM1 (27.4 kbp) and pCM2 (70.0 kbp), which carry pathogenicity genes and thus are essential for virulence, have lower G+C contents (66.5 and 67.6%, respectively). In contrast to the genome of the closely related organism Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the genome of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis lacks complete insertion elements and transposons. The 129-kb chp/tomA region with a low G+C content near the chromosomal origin of replication was shown to be necessary for pathogenicity. This region contains numerous genes encoding proteins involved in uptake and metabolism of sugars and several serine proteases. There is evidence that single genes located in this region, especially genes encoding serine proteases, are required for efficient colonization of the host. Although C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis grows mainly in the xylem of tomato plants, no evidence for pronounced genome reduction was found. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis seems to have as many transporters and regulators as typical soil-inhabiting bacteria. However, the apparent lack of a sulfate reduction pathway, which makes C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis dependent on reduced sulfur compounds for growth, is probably the reason for the poor survival of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in soil.
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Gartemann K-H, Abt B, Bekel T, et al. The genome sequence of the tomato-pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis NCPPB382 reveals a large island involved in pathogenicity. JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY. 2008;190(6):2138-2149.
Gartemann, K. - H., Abt, B., Bekel, T., Burger, A., Engemann, J., Fluegel, M., Gaigalat, L., et al. (2008). The genome sequence of the tomato-pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis NCPPB382 reveals a large island involved in pathogenicity. JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, 190(6), 2138-2149.
Gartemann, K. - H., Abt, B., Bekel, T., Burger, A., Engemann, J., Fluegel, M., Gaigalat, L., Goesmann, A., Graefen, I., Kalinowski, J., et al. (2008). The genome sequence of the tomato-pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis NCPPB382 reveals a large island involved in pathogenicity. JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY 190, 2138-2149.
Gartemann, K.-H., et al., 2008. The genome sequence of the tomato-pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis NCPPB382 reveals a large island involved in pathogenicity. JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, 190(6), p 2138-2149.
K.-H. Gartemann, et al., “The genome sequence of the tomato-pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis NCPPB382 reveals a large island involved in pathogenicity”, JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, vol. 190, 2008, pp. 2138-2149.
Gartemann, K.-H., Abt, B., Bekel, T., Burger, A., Engemann, J., Fluegel, M., Gaigalat, L., Goesmann, A., Graefen, I., Kalinowski, J., Kaup, O., Kirchner, O., Krause, L., Linke, B., McHardy, A., Meyer, F., Pohle, S., Rückert, C., Schneiker-Bekel, S., Zellermann, E.-M., Pühler, A., Eichenlaub, R., Kaiser, O., Bartels, D.: The genome sequence of the tomato-pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis NCPPB382 reveals a large island involved in pathogenicity. JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY. 190, 2138-2149 (2008).
Gartemann, Karl-Heinz, Abt, Birte, Bekel, Thomas, Burger, Annette, Engemann, Jutta, Fluegel, Monika, Gaigalat, Lars, Goesmann, Alexander, Graefen, Ines, Kalinowski, Jörn, Kaup, Olaf, Kirchner, Oliver, Krause, Lutz, Linke, Burkhard, McHardy, Alice, Meyer, Folker, Pohle, Sandra, Rückert, Christian, Schneiker-Bekel, Susanne, Zellermann, Eva-Maria, Pühler, Alfred, Eichenlaub, Rudolf, Kaiser, Olaf, and Bartels, Daniela. “The genome sequence of the tomato-pathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis NCPPB382 reveals a large island involved in pathogenicity”. JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY 190.6 (2008): 2138-2149.
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