War Trauma, Child Labor, and Family Violence: Life Adversities and PTSD in a Sample of School Children in Kabul

Catani C, Schauer E, Elbert T, Missmahl I, Bette J-P, Neuner F (2009)
Journal of Traumatic Stress 22(3): 163-171.

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Abstract
The extent of cumulative adverse childhood experiences such as war, family violence, child labor. and poverty were assessed in a sample of school children (122 girls, 165 boys) in Kabul Afghanistan. Strong gender differences were found with respect to both the frequency of such experiences and the association of different types of stressors with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Boys reported higher overall amounts of traumatic events, specifically experiences of violence at home. This was reflected in a 26% prevalence of probable PTSD in boys compared to 14% in girls. Child labor emerged as a common phenomenon in the examined sample and was furthermore associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing family violence for girls. The results suggest that the interplay of multilevel stressors in Afghan children contributes to a higher vulnerability for the development of PTSD.
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Catani C, Schauer E, Elbert T, Missmahl I, Bette J-P, Neuner F. War Trauma, Child Labor, and Family Violence: Life Adversities and PTSD in a Sample of School Children in Kabul. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2009;22(3):163-171.
Catani, C., Schauer, E., Elbert, T., Missmahl, I., Bette, J. - P., & Neuner, F. (2009). War Trauma, Child Labor, and Family Violence: Life Adversities and PTSD in a Sample of School Children in Kabul. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22(3), 163-171.
Catani, C., Schauer, E., Elbert, T., Missmahl, I., Bette, J. - P., and Neuner, F. (2009). War Trauma, Child Labor, and Family Violence: Life Adversities and PTSD in a Sample of School Children in Kabul. Journal of Traumatic Stress 22, 163-171.
Catani, C., et al., 2009. War Trauma, Child Labor, and Family Violence: Life Adversities and PTSD in a Sample of School Children in Kabul. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22(3), p 163-171.
C. Catani, et al., “War Trauma, Child Labor, and Family Violence: Life Adversities and PTSD in a Sample of School Children in Kabul”, Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol. 22, 2009, pp. 163-171.
Catani, C., Schauer, E., Elbert, T., Missmahl, I., Bette, J.-P., Neuner, F.: War Trauma, Child Labor, and Family Violence: Life Adversities and PTSD in a Sample of School Children in Kabul. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 22, 163-171 (2009).
Catani, Claudia, Schauer, Elisabeth, Elbert, Thomas, Missmahl, Inge, Bette, Jean-Paul, and Neuner, Frank. “War Trauma, Child Labor, and Family Violence: Life Adversities and PTSD in a Sample of School Children in Kabul”. Journal of Traumatic Stress 22.3 (2009): 163-171.
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