Decision making with and without feedback: The role of intelligence, strategies, executive functions, and cognitive styles

Brand M, Laier C, Pawlikowski M, Markowitsch HJ (2009)
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY 31(8): 984-998.

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We investigated the effects of intelligence, decision-making strategies, and general cognitive styles on the role of feedback in making decisions under risk. A total of 100 healthy volunteers were assessed with the Game of Dice Task (GDT). A total of 50 participants performed the original GDT, and 50 participants performed a modified GDT in which no feedback was provided. A neuropsychological test battery and questionnaires assessing strategy application and cognitive styles were administered to all participants. Participants who performed the original GDT had higher net scores than those who performed the modified GDT. The benefit of feedback was moderated by participants' intelligence and strategy application.
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Brand M, Laier C, Pawlikowski M, Markowitsch HJ. Decision making with and without feedback: The role of intelligence, strategies, executive functions, and cognitive styles. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 2009;31(8):984-998.
Brand, M., Laier, C., Pawlikowski, M., & Markowitsch, H. J. (2009). Decision making with and without feedback: The role of intelligence, strategies, executive functions, and cognitive styles. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, 31(8), 984-998. doi:10.1080/13803390902776860
Brand, M., Laier, C., Pawlikowski, M., and Markowitsch, H. J. (2009). Decision making with and without feedback: The role of intelligence, strategies, executive functions, and cognitive styles. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY 31, 984-998.
Brand, M., et al., 2009. Decision making with and without feedback: The role of intelligence, strategies, executive functions, and cognitive styles. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, 31(8), p 984-998.
M. Brand, et al., “Decision making with and without feedback: The role of intelligence, strategies, executive functions, and cognitive styles”, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, vol. 31, 2009, pp. 984-998.
Brand, M., Laier, C., Pawlikowski, M., Markowitsch, H.J.: Decision making with and without feedback: The role of intelligence, strategies, executive functions, and cognitive styles. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 31, 984-998 (2009).
Brand, Matthias, Laier, Christian, Pawlikowski, Mirko, and Markowitsch, Hans J. “Decision making with and without feedback: The role of intelligence, strategies, executive functions, and cognitive styles”. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY 31.8 (2009): 984-998.
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