Heterogeneous ice nucleation in aqueous solutions: the role of water activity

Zobrist B, Marcolli C, Peter T, Koop T (2008)
JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A 112(17): 3965-3975.

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Abstract
Heterogeneous ice nucleation experiments have been performed with four-different ice nuclei (IN), namely nonadecanol, silica, silver iodide and Arizona test dust. All IN are either immersed in the droplets or located at the droplets surface. The IN were exposed to various aqueous solutions, which consist of (NH4)(2)SO4, H2SO4, MgCl2, NaCl, LiCl, Ca(NO3)(2), K2CO3, CH3COONa, ethylene glycol, glycerol, malonic acid, PEG300 or a NaCl/malonic acid mixture. Freezing was studied using, a differential scanning calorimeter and a cold finger cell. The results show that the heterogeneous ice freezing temperatures decrease with increasing solute concentration; however, the magnitude of this effect is solute dependent. In contrast, when the results are analyzed in terms of the solution water activity a very consistent behavior emerges: heterogeneous ice nucleation temperatures for all four IN converge each onto a single line, irrespective of the nature of the solute. We find that a constant offset with respect to the ice melting point curve, Delta a(w,het) can describe the observed freezing temperatures for each IN. Such a behavior is well-known for homogeneous ice nucleation from supercooled liquid droplets and has led to the development of water-activity-based ice nucleation theory. The large variety of investigated solutes together with different general types of ice nuclei studied (monolayers, ionic crystals, covalently bound network-forming compounds, and a mixture of chemically different crystallites) underlines the general applicability of water-activity-based ice nucleation theory also for heterogeneous ice nucleation in the immersion mode. Finally, the ice nucleation efficiencies of the various IN, as well as the atmospheric implication of the developed parametrization are discussed.
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Zobrist B, Marcolli C, Peter T, Koop T. Heterogeneous ice nucleation in aqueous solutions: the role of water activity. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A. 2008;112(17):3965-3975.
Zobrist, B., Marcolli, C., Peter, T., & Koop, T. (2008). Heterogeneous ice nucleation in aqueous solutions: the role of water activity. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A, 112(17), 3965-3975.
Zobrist, B., Marcolli, C., Peter, T., and Koop, T. (2008). Heterogeneous ice nucleation in aqueous solutions: the role of water activity. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A 112, 3965-3975.
Zobrist, B., et al., 2008. Heterogeneous ice nucleation in aqueous solutions: the role of water activity. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A, 112(17), p 3965-3975.
B. Zobrist, et al., “Heterogeneous ice nucleation in aqueous solutions: the role of water activity”, JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A, vol. 112, 2008, pp. 3965-3975.
Zobrist, B., Marcolli, C., Peter, T., Koop, T.: Heterogeneous ice nucleation in aqueous solutions: the role of water activity. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A. 112, 3965-3975 (2008).
Zobrist, B., Marcolli, C., Peter, T., and Koop, Thomas. “Heterogeneous ice nucleation in aqueous solutions: the role of water activity”. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A 112.17 (2008): 3965-3975.
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