Executive functions and risky decision-making in patients with opiate dependence

Brand M, Roth-Bauer M, Driessen M, Markowitsch HJ (2008)
DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE 97(1-2): 64-72.

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Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that individuals with opiate dependence (nay have cognitive dysfunctions particularly within the spectrum of executive functioning and emotional processing. Such dysfunctions can also compromise daily decisions associated with risk-taking behaviors. However, it remains unclear whether patients addicted to opiates show impaired decision-making on gambling tasks that specify explicit rules for rewards anti punishments and provide information about probabilities associated with different long-term outcomes. In this study, we examined 18 individuals with opiate dependence and 18 healthy comparison subjects, matched for age. gender, and education with the Game of Dice Task (GDT). The GDT is a gambling task with explicit rules for gains and losses anti fix winning probabilities. In addition. all subjects completed a neuropsychological test battery that primarily Focused on executive functions anti a personality questionnaire. On the GDT. patients chose the risky alternatives more frequently than the control group. Patients' GDT performance was related to executive functioning but not to other neuropsychological constructs, personality or dependence specific variables with one exception that is the number of days of abstinence. Thus, patients with opiate dependence demonstrate abnormalities in decision-making that might be neuropsychologically associated with dysfunctional behavior in patients' daily lives. Decision-making anti other neuropsychological functioning should be considered in the treatment of opiate dependence. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Brand M, Roth-Bauer M, Driessen M, Markowitsch HJ. Executive functions and risky decision-making in patients with opiate dependence. DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE. 2008;97(1-2):64-72.
Brand, M., Roth-Bauer, M., Driessen, M., & Markowitsch, H. J. (2008). Executive functions and risky decision-making in patients with opiate dependence. DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE, 97(1-2), 64-72. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.03.017
Brand, M., Roth-Bauer, M., Driessen, M., and Markowitsch, H. J. (2008). Executive functions and risky decision-making in patients with opiate dependence. DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE 97, 64-72.
Brand, M., et al., 2008. Executive functions and risky decision-making in patients with opiate dependence. DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE, 97(1-2), p 64-72.
M. Brand, et al., “Executive functions and risky decision-making in patients with opiate dependence”, DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE, vol. 97, 2008, pp. 64-72.
Brand, M., Roth-Bauer, M., Driessen, M., Markowitsch, H.J.: Executive functions and risky decision-making in patients with opiate dependence. DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE. 97, 64-72 (2008).
Brand, Matthias, Roth-Bauer, Martina, Driessen, Martin, and Markowitsch, Hans J. “Executive functions and risky decision-making in patients with opiate dependence”. DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE 97.1-2 (2008): 64-72.
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